A list of Fishlake field names from old maps and documentary sources.

A list of Fishlake field names from old maps and documentary sources.


Field names.

Field names, like place names, have a fascination for local and agrarian historians because they can potentially provide information for our understand of the local landscape and its history.

In the past every field or piece of land was carefully named, unlike in more recent times when this practice became much less common. Before the age of maps naming farmed land was necessary and important for owners and tenants to clearly identify their property. For example, after the Enclosure Act (in Fishlake this took place in 1825) enclosed fields tendered to be called after their size or acreage. It is important to remember that pre enclosure open fields and commons did not have clearly defined field boundaries, e.g. with hedges and ditches. Therefore, many pre enclosure field names refer to strips or parts of land rather that a square or oblong piece of land that we think of as fields today.

Google map large

Fields at Fishlake today, with thanks to Google Earth.

Field names reflect the history, transition and agricultural practices over a very long period of time. There are clues to understand the nature of the soil, shape of the field, crops grown in the field, name of the owner or tenant, sports, functions, geographical nature and nicknames.

However, confusion can arise due to variations in field name spellings at different time. Also, some field had more than one name for example Southberry Croft, in the West End of Fishlake had three other names and could even be known by any other name according to a land deed.

The problem of identifying field name locations remains a problem partly because the size and structure of fields have changed over centuries, partly due to the lack of early maps and the practical problems of putting it all together in single format. The Enclosure Map of 1825 goes a little way to help identification but not many fields in Fishlake are named on the map. My Fishlake History Society colleague, Brenda Grafton, has gone some way to produce maps identifying more precise locations.

Records of over 300 field names are listed below. This work remains on going and it would be appreciated if anyone could help to add or correct this information.

Encl map detail


Google map detail

Top a detail from the Fishlake Enclosure Map 1825.

Below the same area today with thanks to Google Earth.


Key to the main sources of these names.

Rental 1651. A rental dated 1651 related to the copyhold land held by the manor of Hatfield belonging to Isabell Steere daughter and heir to Thomas Perkin of Pinfold Fishlake. Original in Leeds Archives.

GB 1736. The Fishlake Grave Book 1736.

EA 1825. Enclosure Award and Map 1825.

EPN. The Place-Name of the West Riding of Yorkshire by AHSmith, part one, 1962. The examples from here are mainly derived from 1483 MinAcct 77.

BB Fishlake Bylaw Books.

JP 1680. Hatfield Manor Court Surrender of property from John Petty the elder of Fishlake to his son.

Information from Brenda Grafton who is also mapping Fishlake field names.

Other occasional sources will be separately named.

Alphabetical list of field names.


Allerholme. 5 acres. GB 1736. A Close Situated South of Thorninghirst, North of Sour Lane.

Allworth Hill. East Field. Manor of Stockholds, Fishlake 1639. Reference in Bylaw Book 1716.

Anaball Hill. 5 roods. GB 1736.

Annis Ing. 2 acres 3 roods. GB 1736.

Arnall Ing. Next of joining South Lane. 3 acres. GB 1736.

Axlemoor. West Field. GB 1736.


Bakerseying. EPN. (bakere is baker, perhaps a surname, eng is meadow).

Balden Croft. 5 acres 1 1/2 roods. GB 1736.

Ban Croft. 1 acre. GB 1736.

Bank Ing. 12acres 2 roods. Including 5 roods in Bank Ing upon Parson Garth. GB 1736.

Barcroft. East Field. Reference in Bylaw Book 1716. 5 acres 7 perches. OS map no 525. Source Clough House sale papers 1937.

Bareshanks. 3 acres. GB 1736.

Barnett Flatt, East Field. GB 1736.

Barstowcar. 2 acres. Will of John Parkin 1609.

Beamont Garth. 1 acre, 5 1/2d. Rental 1651.

Bell Green Pighill. 1 acre. GB 1736.

Birksikes. 2 acres  1 rood. GB 1736. Also mentioned in a Decree of Commission of Charitable uses 1615. 4 acres there for the maintenance of the Fishlake Almshouse.

Black Abbey Garth. 1 1/2 roods with Edifices. Fosterhouses. GB 1736.

Black Croft. 7 acres 2 roods. GB 1736.

Blackshaw Lane Close. EA map situated South and adjacent to Blacksyke Lane.

Botilgartho. EPN.

Brackenhill Croft. 4 acres. See Wetsells. GB 1736.

Brittain See Far and Near.

Broad Croft at Thorninghirst near North Lane 4 acres. GB 1736.

Broadmans Croft.  Hon John Simpson 7 a 3 r 0p, rate 3s 10 1/2 d. EA map no 627.

Brown Croft. EA map situated West and adjacent to Wood Lane.

Brown Garth near Micklehirst at Thorninghirst. 1/2 acre. GB 1736.

Brown Hill Close. Situated near Snelsholme Lane see EA map 1825.

Brown Hill Ings. 2 1/2 acre. GB 1736.

Botilgarth. EPN. (Bothildr personal name, enclosure).

Boulanger Ing. see Catfleets.

Buckrams Close. EPN (Glebe Terrier 1764). See EA map Situated South of Carr Head Lane.

Buildmires. 1/2 acre, 2d. Rental 1651,

Bulan Ing in Catfleets. 2 acres. GB 1736.

Burkin Croft. EA 1825.

Burngate. From Mellish Deeds of 1704 no 1.

Butler Garth and Ing. 1 acre in Butler Garth and 2 acres in Butler Ing. GB 1736. See EA map 1825. Situated north of Trundle Lane.

Bylaw Garth. 5acres 2 roods. GB 1736.

Byre Croft or Gamble Croft. 5acres 1/2 rood. GB 1736.


Calf Garth. EA 1825 see M11 no 10. Sykehouse?

Catfleets Ings. 1/2 acre. GB 1736.

Catfleets. 6 acres 1 rood. Including 1 acre upon Zeming in Catfleets and 2 acres in Bulan Ing in Catfleets and 1 acre in Bulan Ing Hern. GB 1736. Referenced as Catflette in Bylaw Book 1582.

Chapman Garth. 2 acres 3 3/4 roods. GB 1736.

Clay Croft. 1 1/2 acres. GB 1736. In Mill Field Samuel Staniland 4 acres 1 rood 15 perches, rate 1s 1d. EM 1825, no 466

Clay Field, Mill Field. GB 1736.

Clay Flatt, Mill Field. GB 1736.

Clay Lands, Mill Field.

Clay lands, East Field. 1/2 acre, 2d. Rental 1651.

Coates, Mill Field. GB 1736.

Coates, East Field. GB 1736.

Coates Balk, Mill Field.

Coates Croft. 6 acres. GB 1736.

Coats Flat, East Field. Same as Coates above. Accounts of Allen’s Charity lands 1805.

Coat Lidgit, Mill Field. 1 rood, 1d. Rental 1651.

Cobdall Flatt. 3 roods. GB 1736.

Cootes. 1 rood, 1d. Rental 1651.

Crookness, Mill Field. 1 rood situated in Windmill Field JP 1680. Referenced in Bylaw Book 1716.

Curtice Croft alias Crook Croft. 3 acres 2 1/2 roods. GB 1736.


Dastard Croft. 1 acre. GB 1736.

Dickins Croft. 1 acre 1 roods. GB 1736.

Dikeholmes. 1 acre. GB 1736.

Dike Ing see Northholme.

Dick Ing on Nab. Referenced Bylaw Book 1716.

Dons Pighill. 2 acres 1/2 rood. GB 1736.

Dormer Croft. 4 1/2 acres and 2 acres in a Pighill there. GB 1736.

Dormer Ushells. 7 acres and 2 acres being upon Fen Lane. GB 1736.

Dunghill, Foster House Field.

Dunghill and Hern, Mill Field. Manor of Stockholds 1620.

GB 1736.


East Ing upon South Lane. 3 roods. GB 1736.

East Ing, East Field. GB 1736.

East Ings Close. 2 acres 2 roods 35 perches. Situated close to North Lane and Sour Lane. Source JJ Spencer estate sale papers 1915.

East Toft. 2 1/2 acres. GB 1736.

Erlesyng-Lath. EPN. (the earl’s meadow and barn).

Evat Croft. 8 1/2 acres 2 roods, including 1/2 acre and 1/2 rood in a toft there. GB 1736.

Evott Croft, a close JP 1680.


Fall tharrow. 3 acres 3 1/2 roods. GB 1736.

Far Brittain. Ann Spooner and Mary Blanchard. 3 acres 1 rood 10 perches, rate 1s 6d. EA 1825 no 260.

Far Jockey Close. Mary Holdsworth, 5 acres, rate 3/4d. EA 1825 no 458.

Far Sparrow Croft. EA map no 197, situated South of Wood Lane at Thorninghirst.

Fencarr. 1 acre, 6d. Rental 1651.

Fen Close. 1 acre 1/2 rood. GB 1736.

Fen Hill. 5 roods. GB 1736.

Fen Laine End. 1 1/2 roods. GB 1736.

Fenlondend. EPN. (fen land end).

First Stapleton Close. Hon John Simpson, 5 acres 2 roods 37 perches, rate 2 s 5 1/4d. EA 1825, no 608.

Fisher Croft. 5 acres 2 roods 14 perches, 1786 Estate Survey. In 1825 John Hunt, 4 acres 1 rood 18 perches, rate 1s 10 1/4 d. EA no 270a. Situated North Sour Lane.

Fleming Croft next Micklehirst. 1 acre. GB 1736. In 1786 2 acre 31 perches, Estate Survey.

Foreshore, Fosterhouses. 1 acre 1 rood 8 perches. Deed of Thomas Smith of Smallhedges 1854.

Foster House Field. Foster Houses.

Freshellis, a close. Will of John  Parkin 1609.

Friend Garth, a toft. 1/2 acre. GB 1736.


Gaitshadles. ENP. Yorkshire Wills 1564. (a cross- roads). See EA map Gate Shaddles situated corner of Sorrell Lane and Hayes Lane.

Gamble Croft see Byrk Croft.

Garnors Close.18 acres abutting Double Dike to the North and Nortonfield Lane to the West. Deed of 1783. Deeds at Wakefield Registry.

Garnar Croft. EPN, Min Act 1541. (surname Garner, Croft).

Gap Acre see Mickle Fen.

Geesness see Northolme.

Gen Croft and Stockin. 7 acres in one close but heretofore in two close called Gen Croft and Stockin. Sykehouse Parish Records, Manor Court Rolls of Hatfield (copy) 1777. Is this Fishlake?

Germain Lane Flat. Accounts of Allen’s Charity lands 1805.

Glead Croft. 1 rood. GB 1736.

Goteln Gayte. 1 rood, 1d. Rental 1651.

Great Ushells. 6 acre. GB 1736.

Great Thorninghirst Croft. 4 acres 3 rood. GB 1736.

Greekholmes. 3 1/2 acres 1/2 rood. GB 1736.

Green Close. EA map situated on corner of Geeseness Lane and Blacksyke Lane.

Gun Croft. 14 acres 1/2 rood, including 2 1/2 rood in Low Gun Croft and 1 rood in Nagg Pighill upon Guncroft.


Hadds see North and South. Land situated North of Thorne between the Selby Road and Dikesmarsh. Hadds meaning Headland (often untilled land or common). Referenced in JP 1680.

Hallworth Hill, East Field. 1 acre, 4d. Rental 1651.

Havering at the Garth end. 2 acre. GB 1736.

Hayes Close, situated off Hayes Lane, see EA map 1825.

Hayes Lane Field. 5 acres 3 roods 30 perches. Situated West of and fronting Wood Land, OS map no 472. Source The Old Hall sale papers 1937.

Hays. 1 acre 3 1/2 roods. GB 1736.

Hazlehirst Close, situated close to Hayes Lane, see EA map 1825.

Hazel Hurst. 6 acres 2 perches. OS map no 106. Source Clough House sale papers 1937.

Hedes, a close. Will of John Parkin 1609. Could be same as Hadds.

Hessell, Mill Field. 1 1/2 roods, 1 1/2d. Rental 1651.

Hessle Flat, Mill Field. GB 1736.

Hesslehirst. 2 acre 1 rood. GB 1736.

Hessle Hirst Shaw. 1 acre 3 roods. GB 1736.

Heymires. 2 1/2 acres 1/2 rood. 2s 7 1/2d. Rental 1651.

Hob Croft. 2 acres. GB 1736.

Hobson’s Croft. 2 acres 2 roods. Situated near Hay Green Farm. Source JJ Spencer estate sale papers 1915.

Hoggreue (Hog wood). EPN.

Hollinbush flat. Account of Allen’s Charity lands 1805.

Hollingbush Flatts. As above. Manor of Stockholds, Fishlake 1688.

Hornby Croft. 2 acres 1/2 rood. Close to Hornby Lane. GB 1736.

House Close. Estate maps of William Payne , 1801.

Hud Croft. Will of Richard Clerk 1500. Born in Fishlake.

Hud Pighill near Webster Croft. 1/2 acre. GB 1736

Howlands. 2 acres 3 roods. GB 1736.


Ichynenge. EPN, Min Acct 1405.

Ings Siddles on Steward Ing. Referenced in Bylaw Book 1716.

Inkle Moor. 29 acres 2 roods. GB 1736. Mentioned in Rental 1651. Detached lands, located North of Thorne.


Jack Croft. 5 1/2 acres. GB 1736.

Jannett Croft. 1 acre 1 rood 24 perches. Situated close to North Lane and Sour Lane. Source JJ Spencer estate sale papers 1915.

Jemmill Croft. Mathew Amery 1 acre 1 rood 25 perches, rate 9 1/2d. EA 1825 no 267. North of Sour Lane.

Jenkin Croft and Shaw. 14 acre. GB 1736. Also mentioned in 1651.

Jockey Close. Mary Holdsworth 2 acres 2 roods 24 perches, rate 1d. EA 1825 no 450.

Jocky Flatt. Article of agreement between Richard Doughty and Edward Womeley, 1675. Sheffield City Archives.

Jordan, East Field.

Johnny Hall Close. Adjoining Johnny Hall Lane.


Kinward Croft, Foster House Field. GB 1736.

Kirk Town. 3 acres including 1/2 rood in West Garth and 3 roods in one toft there. GB 1736.

Knight Croft, next or butting upon Osgteshalls. 2 1/2 acres. GB 1736.


Laine House. 2 1/2 roods in a Garth there. 7 roods with the buildings at Laine House 3 1/2 acres formerly with the buildings at Laine House. GB 1736.

Land Croft at Foster houses. 1 1/2 acres. GB 1736.

Land Herne Shaw. Mellish Deed of 1704, no 1. ???? Check.

Laverack Shaw. 2 acres. GB 1736. Laverack is a personal name.

Lawns. Situated South of Sour Lane, see EA map 1825, no 104.

Le Heth. (Heathland). EPN.

Ley Ings. 1 1/2 acres. GB 1736.

Les Halues. (Half acre or hath ‘nook’). EPN.

Little Close. Mathew Amery 1 acre 36 perches, rate 5d. EA 1825 no 272.

Little Hayes Close. EA map situated West and adjacent to Wood Land and East of Brown Croft.

Little Martin Ing. Just to the East of the Fishlake vicarage. 1752 Lord Viscount Irwin Inquest Map.

Little Woolf Hill. 4 acres. GB 1736.

Long Buall, West Field. GB 1736.

Long Croft. 5 acres 1 rood. GB 1736. Also Longcroft ( also known as Wood Lane Close). 3 acres 1 rood 33 perches. OS map no 102. Source Clough House sale 1937.

Long Whitehouse Garth. EA map adjacent to Wykehouse Lane.

Lord Croft, Fosterhouses. 4 acres 2 perches. Deed of Thomas Smith of Smallhedges 1854.

Low Close, Far and Near. West Field. Source Estate maps of William Payne, 1801.

Lowghwhaites. 5 acres. GB 1736.


Malkin Croft and Malkin Ing. 2 1/2 acre, plus 1 rood with the buildings there. Also 2 acres in Malkin Ing joining upon Snelsholme Green. GB 1736.

Martin Ing. East of Fishlake vicarage. Reference in Bylaw Book 1666. Also on Lord Viscount Irwin Inquest Map 1752. See Mertyeyng.

Mastall Pitt, (or Marshall Pitt), 1/2 acre, Mill Field. GB 1736.

Mastill pit flat. Accounts of the Allen’s Charity lands 1805.

Mellon Ing. 2 acres 1/2 rood. GB 1736.

Mertyeyng. EPN Pat. 1405.(Martin Ings).

Macklemore Croft. 1/2 acre. GB 1736.

Macklemore Fen. 26 acres 1/2 rood including 1 acre on Gap Acre. GB 1736.

Medley Close, Fosterhouses. deed of Thomas Smith, Smallhedges 1854.

Mentoft. A little Close, East of Hornby Lane. John Cowley deed 1733. Deeds Wakefield Registry.

Middle Flatt. 1 acre. GB 1736.

Midlemires. 2 acres, 2s. Rental 1651.

Micklehirst. 4 acres 2 1/2 rood. GB 1736. In 1825 Ann Spooner and Mary Blanchard 4 acres 2 rods 24 perches, rate 1/4d. EA 1825 no 274.

Mill Close, Far and Near. Estates maps of William Payne, 1801.

Mill Land Field, Mill Field Road. 13 acres 1 rood 29 perches. J J Spencer estate sale papers 1915.

Milner Croft. 13 1/2 acres. GB 1736.

Mocock Croft. 1 acre 1 rood. GB 1736.

Molendin Stapuland. (a mill for sorting wool). EPN Min. Acct 1324.

Moor Croft. 11 acres 2 rooms. GB 1736. Situated off Hayes Lane, see EA map 1825.

Moor house Gate the buildings. 1/2 acre with buildings, 3 rooms with Edifices, 1/2 acre 1/2 rood with the buildings, 1 acres with the buildings, 1 acre with the buildings. GB 1736.

Moor Ing. 9 acres 2 1/4 roods, including 2 acres and 3 1/2 rods in Moor Ing on Lowhitts. GB 1736.

Mortenstall, East Field. GB 1736.


Nab Close. 2 acres 3 roods 3 perches. Situated in Hornby Lane. Source JJ Spencer estate sale papers 1915.

Nab Field. 1 acres 2 roods 26 perches. Source JJ Spencer estate sale papers 1915.

Nab Ing. 1/2 acre. GB 1736.

Nag Pighill. 1 rood in nag Pighill upon Gun Croft (see Gun Croft). 1 rood in Nagg Pighill near Gun Croft. 1 acre in Nagg Pighill butting upon Snelsholme. 1 acre 2 roods in Nagg Pighill (no place specified). GB 1736.

Nan Croft. 4 acres. GB 1736. See EA map situated South of and adjacent to Wykehouse Lane.

Near Brittain. Ann Spooner and Mary Blanchard, 2 acres 2 roods 18 perches, rate 11 1/2d. EA 825 no 296.

Near Sour Lane Close. EA map situated North of Sour Lane.

North Buall, West Field.

North Croft called Court Laine Shaw. 7 acres. GB 1736.

Northern Pighill, Thorninghirst. See EA map 1825. Situated South of Steward Ings Lane

Northern Wood, Thorninghirst. See EA map 1825. Situated South of Steward Ings Lane.

Northfield called New Croft. 11 acres. GB 1736.

North Hadds. 17 acres. GB 1736.

Northholme Hill see Northolme.

Northolme. 29 acres 1 rood, including 17 acres in Northolme, 8 acres in Dikeing, 3 acres in Geeness, 1 acre in Northholme Hill. GB 1736.

North Lane Close. Mathew Amery 5 acres 2 roods 36 perches, rate 2 s. EA 1825 no 271.

North Lane Croft. 8 1/2 acre 1 rood. GB 1736. In 1825 Mathew Amery 3 acres 1 rood 26 perches, rate 1s 3/ 4d. EA 1825, no 192.

North Lane Shaw. 2 acres. GB 1736.


Old Field, Mill Field. Will of John Hague 1725.

Old Field Flat, Mill Field. Accounts of Allen’s Charity land 1805.

Old House Garth. EA map situated South of and against to Clay Dike at Bell Green.

Old Lowns. 8 acres. GB 1736.

Osberton Croft, next to Allworth hill in East Field.

Osburn Croft in Allworth Hill. JP 1680.

Outcaster Croft. 2 acres a close. SP records, Manor Court Rolls of Hatfield 1777, mentioned in 1708. Is this Sykehouse?

Oxoxs or Oxoake. 16 acres. GB 1736.


Page Pighill. 1 acre 1 rood. GB 1736.

Pains Croft. 13 acres, including 1 rood in a Shaw joining upon Pains Croft. GB 1736.

Parson Croft, West Field. Reference in Bylaw Book 1702.

Parson Garth, see Bank Ing.

Peacock Ing. 3 acres. GB 1736.

Peacock Shaw. 3 acres 3 roods. GB 1736.

Person Pighill see Snow Croft.

Penny Shaw. 6 acres 2 roods. GB 1736.

Pickhaver Shaw. 1 acre. GB 1736.

Pickhill. Estates maps of William Payne, 1801.

Pig Close. EA map situated South Carr Head Lane, next Buckram Close.

Pighill near or upon Allworth hill. 2 1/2 roods near Allworth hill, 2 acres butting upon Allworth hill. GB 1736.

Pighill next Gun Croft. 1/2 acre. GB 1736.

Pighill Close. 2 acres 8 perches. Situated near Hay Green Farm. Source JJ Spencer estate sale 1915.

Pinfold Pighill. The name of the present allotments on Pinfold Lane source Mis Olive Smith.

Place Ing. 1 acre 3/4 rood. GB 1736. Is this Sykehouse?

Poor Folk’s Close. Part of the Fishlake Poor Estates. Dating back to a bequest of Thomas Parkin in 1574. Reference Charity Commission Report 1895

Poor Ing. 3 acres. GB 1736.

Press Ing upon South Lane. 1 acre 1 rood. GB 1736. Is this Sykehouse?

Priest Croft Hill. 1 1/2 roods, West Field. GB 1736.

Pylkyngton. EPN.


Queensholmes. 6 acres 3 roods. GB 1736.

Quinter House Shaw. 2 acres. GB 1736.


Rawgate Croft at Thorninghirst. 3 1/2 acres with the buildings, 2 1/2 acres with the buildings. GB 1736.

Rawgate Ing in South Hadds. 3 acres 1 1/2 roods. GB


Raw marsh. 10 1/2 acre. GB 1736.

Redhill. 2 acres, 8d. Rental 1651.

Redynges. Will of John Parkin 1609.

Reed hill. 5 acres. GB 1736. Reedhills EA map situated South of Blacksyke Lane.

Riding Gap. 1 rood near to in West Field. GB 1736.

Roger Close. Situated near Snesholme Green see EA map 1825.

Round half acre. 1/2 acres on Wettfurrs. Referenced in Bylaw Book 1716.

Round Rood. 1 rood. Referenced in Bylaw Book 1716.

Rudgates, next Burnleys. 1 1/2 acre. GB 1736.

Rue Croft. 6 acres, including 2 roods butting upon Rue Croft. GB 1736. Rue is a herbaceous plant often used as a disinfectant.

Rue Croft, West Field. Referenced in Bylaw Book 1716.

Ryley Garth, Mastall Pitt. Manor of Stockholds 1694.

Rysam Bridge Pighill. 2 acres 1 rood. GB 1736.


Salmon Bowers. 7 roods. GB 1736.

Salmon Moor. 4 acres. GB 1736.

Sand Croft. 7 1/2 acres, including 1 1/2 acres with buildings. GB 1736.

School Close. EA map situated North of Wood Lane.

School Close, Claybridge. Little 1 acre 2 roots 11 perches. Middle 2 acres 2 roods 17 perches. Far 2 acres 2 roods 11 perches. Far 7 acres 18 perches. Middle 4 acres 1 rood 32 perches. Near 6 acres 1 rood 24 perches. Fishlake School Trust lands in 1894.

Scoots Close. From c 1700 Charity Commissioners report of 1895 when Paul Holme was tennant. 1 acres 3 roods 2 1/2 perches this is the moiety. Situated at Foster House between Wenchurst Lane and Sorrell Lane.

Second Stapleton Close. Hon John Simpson, 6 acres 1 rood 2 perches, rate 2s 9 2/4d. EA 1825, no 609.

Shading Garth. 1/2 rood. GB 1736.

Shaw Croft. 3 acres. GB 1736.

Sheppinstall, West Field. JP 1680.

Shepenstall Long and Short, East Field. Referenced in Bylaw Book 1716.

Short Croft, Foster house Field. GB 1736.

Sholtberrycloses. EPN 1541 Min Acct.

Shutter Ing. 2 acres. GB 1736.

Sil Croft at Thorninghirst. 3 1/2 acres with buildings. GB 1736.

Simon House joining upon Norton Field. 1 acre. GB 1736. (This could be what in the EA map Old House Garth, see under that.

Simond Land or Simon or Simson Lands. 3 acres 3 roods. GB 1736.      EA map Simeon Land Close next to Bell Green.

Simon Lands, Claybridge 5 acres 16 perches. Fishlake School Trust lands 1894.

Slate Garth. West Field. Referenced in Bylaw Book 1716.

Slethorne. EPN. (level field).

Smith Ings, West Field. GB 1736.

Smith Moor Croft. 3 acres 2 roods. GB 1736.

Snaith Ings. 3 roods. West Field. GB 1736.

Snatchells. 6 acres 7 roods. GB 1736.

Snow Croft. 3 acres 1 rood, including 5 roods in Parson Pighill in Snow Croft. GB 1736.

Sorrel Croft, West Field. 1 acre, 4d. Rental 1651.

Sorrel Flatt, West Field. JP 1680.

South Benall. 1 rood. West Field. GB 1736.

South Buall, West Field. 1 acre, 4d. Rental 1651.

South Hadds also see Rawgate Ing. 25 acres 1/2 rood, including 3 acres and 1 1/2 roods in Rawgate Ing there. GB 1736.

Southberry Crofts or Sandbed Crofts otherwise Black Crofts otherwise Long Closes or by any other name. 2 closes containing 8 acres. Deed of John Cowley 1733. Deed Wakefield Registry.

St Hugh Croft. Source Mellish Deeds of 1704, no1.

Stapleton. see First and second.

Staynthorp. EPN 1329 AD.

Steward Ing. Referenced in Bylaw Book 1716.

Stockin see Gen Croft.

Stock Ings. 2 acres 3 1/2 roods. GB 1736. More recently part of the Dole Charities lands.

Stonyknoll. EPN 1541 Min Acct. (hillock).

Struns Croft. 8 acres. GB 1736.

Studards Garths, a close. Will of John Hague 1726.

Symond Ing. 1 /2 acres. GB 1736.


Tendrill Croft, Foster House Field. GB 1736.

The Garth Field. 1 acres 2 roods 34 perches. Situated near Hay Green Farm. Source JJ Spencer estate sale papers 1915.

Thorninghurst Close. Mortgage from Robert Wayte of Selby to Francis Simpson of Fishlake 1786. Sheffield City Archives.

Thorninghirst Croft. 3 1/2 roods. GB 1736.

Threshalls. 1 1/2 acres. GB 1736.

Thuscroft, West Field.

Town Croft. 7 acres 3/4 rood. 1 rood with buildings. 1 acres and 1/2 rood with the buildings. 1/2 rood with the buildings. 1 1/2 roods with the buildings. GB 1736.

Town Ings. Referenced in Bylaw Book 1582. 21 acres 2 1/2 roods. GB 1736.

Turn Croft. Land and buildings near Taining Lane see EA map 1825.

Twelve Apostles. Part of the Thomas Allyn the Elder charity lands containing 12.89 acres. Hence the name.

Tyanfall. 1 acres. GB 1736.

TytheDale. EPN 1771 m.


Wad Croft near Foster House Green. 1 acre. GB 1736.

Walkin Garth, Moorhouse. 1 1/2 rood. GB 1736.

Wallnut Croft. 2 1/2 acre. GB 1736.

Walnut Tree Close. Records regarding changes of ownership from 1707. Church records due to ownership of Rev John Gibson.

Wallnut Tree Pighill. 1 1/2 acre close at West End of Fishlake. Will of John Hague 1725.

Webster Croft, Foster House Field.

Wellis Garth. Will of John Parking 1609.

Wench hurst Close. 2 acres 1 rood 15 perches. Source deeds belonging to Fishlake Hall dated 1810. Also Wenchurst Field, 5 acres 19 perches. Situated South of Sorrell Lane, Fosterhouses. OS map no 534. Sources The Old Hall sale papers 1936.

Wenshirst. 3 acres, 2s. Rental 1651.

West End the buildings.

West End Close or West End Croft. Deed of 1733. Deeds Wakefield Registry.

West End Croft. 3 acres 3 rood in 1736.

West Field Closes, West Field.

West Field Gate, West Field.

West Garth. see Kirk Town.

West Noake on Steward Ing. Referenced in Bylaw Book 1716.

West Toft. 3 roods. GB 1736.

Wetsells called Black Croft. 6 acres, 2 acres in Wetsells. GB 1736.

Wet setts or Wetwhongs. 9 acre 3 roods. GB 1736.

Wettfurrs. Referenced in Bylaw Book 1716. 1 rood, East Field. GB 1836.

Wett-honeys. 5 acres 3 roods. GB 1736.

White Clover Field. 7 acres 3 roods 19 perches. OS map no 61. Source Clough House sale papers 1937.

Wheat Croft. EA map situated at Foster houses adjacent Hussells Lane.

Wikehouse. 7 acres 1 rood, including 2 acres and 3 roods in Balden Croft Wikehouse. GB 1736.

Willcoat Bank, East Field. Referenced in Bylaw Book 1716.

Will Croft a moor. 2 acres 1 rood. GB 1736.

Willoke or Wylocke or Willocke, West Field. JP 1680.

Wolsum Ings. 15 acres 1 1/4 rood. FB 1736. EA map situated South and adjacent to Blacksyke Lane. Same as Wollsomyng, 2 acres in Will of John Parkin 1609. Now 2 acres West side of Low Ings Lane?

Wood Lane Close. See Longcroft.

Wood Lane Field. 3 acres 2 roods 11 perches. Situated East of with a frontage to Wood Lane. OS map no 474. Source The Old Hall sale papers 1937.


Youl Croft. 8 acres 3 1/4 rood, including 1 rood in Youl Garth. GB 1736.


Zeming see Catfleets.


Glossary of terms.

Close. An enclosure from an open field.

Croft. Enclosed meadow or arable land, usually adjacent to the house.

Field. The present day fields are more properly closes. Before enclosures a field was a large stretch of open land divided into strips.

Flat or flats. A strip in an open field or a piece of level ground.

Garth. A yard or enclosure.

Hayes. An enclosure.

Hern. An odd shaped, small piece of land or land in the bend if a river.

Ings. A common meadow.

Land. A Selion.

Lawn. A Selion

Ley. A meadow, untilled land.

Perch. A very variable size in feet. Later standard end to 16 1/2 feet.

Pighill.  Small enclosure, Croft.

Rood. 1/4 of an acre.

Selion. A cultivated strip in an open field, con sting of a ridge with a furrow on either side.

Shaw. A small wood.

Toft a house or the land were a house once stood.


Rob Downing May 2020.


Primitive Methodism in Fishlake and Two Preachers.

Primitive Methodism in Fishlake and Two Preachers.


Religious non conformity has long been a major feature of social history in South Yorkshire community non more so than in the low land parishes of Fishlake and Sykehouse. Amongst others Methodism became a very popular following from as early as the 1740’s. By the early 19 th century Primitive Methodism began to emerge this quote from the website gives a brief background account of the phenomena.

“The Primitive Methodists were a major offshoot of the principal stream of Methodism – the Wesleyan Methodists – in 19th Century Britain.

In the early decades of the 19th century there was a growing body of opinion among the Wesleyans that their Connexion was moving in directions which were a distortion of, not to say a betrayal of, what John Wesley had brought to birth in the 18th century.

Eventually a Methodist preacher called Hugh Bourne became the catalyst for a breakaway, to form the Primitive Methodists. Probably ‘primitive’ was used to clarify their self-understanding that they were the true guardians of the original, or primitive, form of Methodism. The Wesleyans were nervous of direct political engagement.

By the end of the 19th century these two streams of Methodism realised they had more in common than they might have supposed. So conversations began which led to their being the two principal partners in the union to form the present-day Methodist Church in 1932.”

Methodist Chapel Fishlake 1970s

Picture of chapel in Trundle Lane as it wasw in the 1970’s. Build in 1890 replacing a much older building which stood close by, now a barn standing in the yard of the farmhouse on the corner of Dirty Lane and Trundle Lane.

Thanks to information passed to me by Joanne Clarke about her direct ancestors who were notable Primitive Methodist preachers.

Joseph Clarke 1835-1903.

J Clarke edited.

Taken from an obituary in the Primitive Methodist Magazine by J Wilson.

“Mr Clarke was born at Fishlake on February 21, 1835 and spent the greater part of his life in the same neighbourhood.

For some years his residence was at Sykehouse during which time a very gracious revival of religion took place and in this revival Mr Clarke took a deep interest. That he was a member and local preacher in our church for many years is clear from the fact that at the time of his death and for a number of years before his name stood at the top of the list of local preachers on the plan of his station. His regular attendance at the public means of grace both on Sunday and week evenings, was well known and highly thought of by the ministers and local preachers will conducted services in the chapel in which he worshipped. His generosity as shown by his giving to assist God’s cause was a fine example to all.

His high esteem of ministers of the gospel was a very prominent feature in his case and especially the ministers of long ago; such devout and useful ministers of Jesus Christ as Thomas Kendall, James T Shepherd, Thomas Newsome and Thomas Whittaker,  holding a very high place in his thought and feeling.

The writer of this member for six years consecutively travelled in the Doncaster second station and as often as he visited Fishlake found a very hospitable home in the house and Mr Clarke I can testify concerning the kindness extend it to him by Mr and Mrs Clarke and the household.

He was a man who loved his bible and during the visits of the preachers delighted in Bible reading and in attend to the stock of Bible truth.

His regard for prayer was commensurate with regard for the Bible and nothing seem to delight in more than (after meals) to gather his numerous family for prayer.

His projected affection gave him opportunity for quiet meditation and we doubt not that as far as his severe afflictions allowed he used his opportunity well and left a good hope that when death came his departure to be with Christ. 

May his widow, sons and daughters meet the loved one in the home in which “there shall be no more death, neither sorrow, no crying, neither shall there be any more pain; for the former things are passed away.”

Joseph died 2 December 1903 at Fishlake.

His family details are as follows.

Joseph was baptised on the 1 March 1835 at Fishlake, his parents were Thomas and agricultural labourer and Mary.

From the Fishlake census returns; 1851 farm servant, 1861 Carter, 1871 farmer 26 acres, 1881 farm labour agricultural, 1891 hay trusser and primitive Methodist local preacher, 1901 farmer and Haycutter.

Joseph married Elizabeth Hurst 1844 -1909 on the 4th of June 1864 at Fishlake Yorkshire they had 11 children as follows:

John Thomas 1865 -1917 a Carter at colliery 1911.

Annie born about 1867 a dressmaker in 1911

Martin James 1868 -1937 a general labourer in 1911.

Mary Henrietta born 1870 to a domestic cook in 1901.

Lucy about 1875 -1886.

William Hirst 1877 -1922 general agricultural labourer in 1901 and carter in 1911.

Jane Ann 1880 – 1936. Married Jesse Harry Elliss in 1903, a traction engine driver in 1911, in 1903.

Sarah Elizabeth 1883 to 1960 married Robert J Booker hey and straw delivery in 1905.

Jesse born 1885.

Charles Hirst about 1890 to 1967 a carter in 1911.


His son (see below) James Martin Clarke 1868-1937 also practised as a Primitive Methodist preacher. However he was removed for marrying his sister in law after his first wife died.




Rob Downing February 2020.



The Bylaw Books and Bylawmen of Fishlake.


The Bylaw Books and Bylawmen of Fishlake, Volume One 1582 -1674, Volume Two 1680 to 1808. An introduction with some background information.


The Fishlake Bylaw books are both important documents and records for local historians to study. These types of records are also a valuable source of research for economic and social historians. There are many reference to named individual  providing a great source of additional information for the family historian. The original books are now in the care of Doncaster Archives and a transcription has been produced by the present author.

Volume one (1582-1674) of the Bylaw book itself measures 19.5 cm in length by 15 cm in width. It appears the original cover was replaced at some time during the 17 th century by a single parchment page torn out of a medieval missal. (a liturgical book containing all instructions and texts necessary for the celebration of mass throughout the year).

This volume is in poor state, the bottom right hand corner has been thumbed away and there is evidence of dampness in the past. Spinal stitching is also very loose and inadequate.


Bylaw book 2 cropped


Front cover and page of  volume one showing what is left of a parchment page from a Missal.

This volume one is by far the most interesting, not just due to its age but it also covers an interesting period of British history. The accounts list the names of the various officer elected yearly and give details of yearly expenditure for a wide variety of items, more details later. Further information is given in the form of memorandums detailing the practice, customs of the bylaw officers and their duties.

Volume one appears as can be deduced to begin in the year 1580 as the first page has been torn out and contemporary number sequence can be seen at the top of the page confirming this. In practice the accounts begin in 1582 and runs almost complete until 1674 except for a significant gap between 1625-1630 inclusive. This total absence of records at this period, and no evidence of pages being torn out, suggesting a period of suspension of township affairs most likely as a result of drainage operation in the adjacent parishes resulting in catastrophic flooding north of the river Don in both Fishlake and Sykehouse. I assume the ensuing chaos proved very disruptive to township affairs.

Volume two 1680 -1808. This book is bound in a hard cover, with a parchment overlay. It has been repaired with a new leather spine and re-stitching. Although broken off it has had two leather strap and corresponding hoops for fastening. The title page, at the back of the book, reads as follows;

“The By law Book of Fishlake.

Containing the yearly arts and orders of twelve men Elected and chosen yearly and every year on the 25 day of Old April out of the said town of Fishlake for to Redress Common Anoymiles in the common fields Ings and byways according to an ancient custom beyond the memory of man and continued year by year until this year 1679.”

 On the opposite page is written; “This is a True Copy of the first leat which is now lost”. Leat meaning list or record.

Volume two follows a fairly similar pattern of recording lists of elected officers, restating official memorandum, detailing accounts of expenditure as well as money collected through for example trespassing on township commons, specially, for some reason, after 1735. It maybe that we are seeing the beginning of an increased intolerance of local inhabits to what would be seen as abuses of pasturing rights by non-residents.

The accounts vary in quality and quantity for year to year dependent on the skills of the scribe and their dedication to the work.

The coverage of both books includes the township of Fishlake and lands in Ditchmarsh (North of Thorne) of which Fishlake has ancient held rights. It does not cover the township of Sykehouse. We know from the Fishlake Bylaw Book that Sykehouse did have their own township officer including Grassmen etc.

The historical context to the bylaw administration.

The manor of Fishlake was under the manorial administration of the Great Court of Hatfield. Usually all township officers were elected and directly responsible to the Manor Court. However, by the end of the Middle Ages, manor courts tended to leave matters of open field organisations to the inhabitants, owners and their representatives, therefore the township organisation fell to the bylawmen and they created and enacted the bylaws. Therefore, the bylawmen were to a certain degree dissociated from the manor court, and the supervision and routine of the open fields became township business in which the lord of the manor played little part.

In effect this was a kind of agrarian cooperative in which all the inhabitants and their elected representative (bylawmen and parish officers) organised the day to day, year by year running of the township as an entry taken from the bylaw book for the year 1679 stated ” to redress common anomalies in the common fields, Ings and byways according to ancient custom beyond the memory of man”.

Between 1582 and 1808 the bylawmen made and enforced the bylaws and kept their accounts and records reflecting local agricultural practices and customs. Changing priorities over two centuries can be plotted especially regarding the open field system which became increasingly unpopular among the larger farmers. These accounts slowly diminished by 1800 when the open fields were finally enclosed by Act of Parliament 1812–1825. The accounts come to an end in 1808 as the role of the bylaw officers became redundant.This subject has already been covered in part by the late Dan Byford in his article Open Field Farming in Fishlake and Hatfield: The Evidence of the Court Books, 1582-1808. published in Aspects of Doncaster. Discovering Local History Ed by Brian Elliott 1997. Recommended reading. As Byford succinctly puts it the content of the books reflects the business and organising local agricultural practices in respect of the parish common lands.

The bylaw officers met to do business at the yearly Bylaw Court which was customarily held at the Court Gate in the Mill field (this location in modern Fishlake is not certain), a gate in old Norse meant an opening. This would imply an open air gathering of officers to establish rules, confirm practices and elect officers.

However, on special occasions meetings were held at alterative locations for example in May 23 rd 1667, “The bylaw being sumined to mete to Gether at hayven cros the day above written to serve the somses in the bylaw feild and Inges”. The haven cross I would say refers to what is now the Butter Cross in the village centre.

The customary day chosen for these meetings was 25 th April, St Marks Day. This day had strong significance, throughout the records there was no deviation from that date. Even after the official change to national calendar, local traditions remained unchanged. In1752 the Julian calendar (Old style) calendar was replaced by the Gregorian (NewStyle) calendar. This meant 12 days were lost and the first day of the year moved back from 1st March to 1st January. After 1754 all Bylaw meetings continued to be held on ‘Old St. Marks day’ now 6 May. This must surely indicate the importance given to that date. The Court start time was early, as recorded in a memorandum of 1680, “It’s agreed that the Old Bylawmen shall make their appeared at the Court held at Coat Gate the 25 th April at 7’0 clock morning, upon penalty of 6 pence or to stand on next year as the Court shall see fit.”

The fact that fines were necessary to encourage attendance at meetings shows a general lack of enthusiasm to engage in these duties.

 The significance of using this particular patron saint, St Marks, for agrarian business, is not entirely clear but could well derive from the ancient rogation practice. There were 4 rogation days every year when the parish boundaries were perambulation in an organised procession led by a clergyman who said prayers blessing the crops for a fruitful harvest. The first three day were known as minor rogation day while the final and fourth day known as major rogation day which was held on 25 th April, St Marks day. The religious significance given to this Saint’s day may well explain the traditional appointment of 12 bylaw officers every year. 12 mirroring the 12 apostles.

Fishlake is a township of small settlements which is reflected in the organisation of the bylaw court. Every year representatives were chosen from all 5 principle settlements. The main settlement around the church called Kirktown had 4 representatives, others Thorninghurst, Fosterhouses, Fleethouse, Westend and Morehouse (sometimes Moorhouse Gate or even Morris Gate) all had two officers. Also, Sandgate which was only listed 1688 and 1690. Ratton Row first appears in 1691 possibly renaming Sandgate which does not appear again (location unknown but possibly refers to Hay Green as that is the only location with no representative.


Bylaw B 3

Accounts for 7 th January 1616.


An example of a fairly typical yearly list of bylaw officers taken from 1596. (I have modernised the spellings).

Elected at the Bylaw Court in the year 1596.

Thorninghist Edmond Wait younger. Thomas Padley.

Fleet house Edmond Parkin. William Wait.

Kirktown Edmond Wait elder. William Goodridge. Richard Chester. John Parkin.

Morehouse and Westend. William Spark. Edward Hudson.

Foster house. Robert Heaton. William Goodridge.

Grassmen. Richard Newsome. William Allan. Thomas Parkin Newhouse.

Bankmen. Thomas Wayte. Dennis Hawson. Thomas Parkin, Pinfold. Thomas Parkin, Newhouse

The bylaws accounts include the duties and activities of the other bylaw officers in particular: Pinder, Nowtherd, Grassman, Bankman, Boatman later Ferryman.

Grassmen. Three officers chosen yearly. The duties of the grassmen were to oversee the grazing of the commons, especially the control of illegal grazing and the collection of fees from outsiders who sent animals to be pastured.

Boatman later Ferryman. One person appointed yearly. (See sperate article for details).

Banksmen. These were also under the control of the bylawmen at the bylaw court. Four banksmen were elected yearly to oversee the maintain the earthen riverside embankments primary on the South and eastern side the township. This office is primarily a product of a Fenland edge community confronted by drainage problems and flood risks.

There is a late 17 th century petition stating that the Fishlake river banks before 1630 were only 3 feet high and their cost of maintenance yearly was £8. The ultimate responsibility for embankment repairs and cost lay with the inhabitants the task of supervision and control rested with the bank men.

Yearly elections of bankmen continued up and until 1633 when the office appear to have been abolished. This can be explained as a  results of the Vermuyden drainage operations during the  late 1620’s in the adjacent townships of Hatfield and Thorne the resulting catastrophic flooding on the Fishlake and Sykehouse side as a consequence generated complaints as a result the King in council ordered that the old banks at these places be put under the management of the participants (those involved in the drainage operation). In effect they took over the maintenance of the banks for the inhabitants and at the inhabitant expense.  Consequently, the office of bankmen became obsolete.

Neatherd or Nowtherd meaning cattle herdsman. They assisted the Pinder in roundup stray animals and moving animals about from one place to another. A memorandum of April 25 1611 details their responsibilities.


Bylaw B 1

A typical page from the Bylaw Book volume one page for 1610. On the left a list of  elected bylawmen for that year and on the right a memorandum detailing the customs and practices of the Pinder and Nowtherd.


A manorial or parish office in charge of the pound or pinfold.

The Pinder at Fishlake was elected at the bylaw court every year and responsible to the bylawmen, the Pinder being an important officer in an open field village. His job was to impound livestock found straying about the township and to place them in a pound or pinfold, many still survive including a brick one in Fishlake.

(See separate article for a more comprehensive review).

The following are some examples, mostly taken from volume one, illustrating ranges of work and responsibilities undertaken by the elected bylaw officers taken from the bylaw records: (I have modernised the spellings).

Some payments were made to undertake the task of keeping accounts. 1608 William Alleyn hath received 7s 4d of the town for making the grave book (see glossary) which book is belonging to the town.

Electing and overseeing the work of the other subsidiary officers.

Plenty of examples elsewhere.

Parish security and armoury.

Item 1582 Thomas Atkin for half a pound of gunpowder 8d.

1583 paid to Mr Parkyn for a plank for stocks and gunpowder 6s 4d.

1584 paid to Edmund [  ? ] for carrying a prisoner to York 2s

Collection of rents including Dichmarsh, North of Thorne.

Richard Parkin 1582 where of he paid 10s for dichmarsh rent.

Collecting pasturing fees, a significant part of the officer’s work.

In 1610 William Allyn received of Lawrence Hutchinson for 3 horses 15s.

Item of Thomas Drinkrow for 43 swine 26s.

Some came from a distance. Item of Cocker of Rotherham for a grey nag 2s 6d.

Agistment (see glossary) money.

1603 Thomas Bryan hath received for gist money this year already £4 10s 4d.

Drainage repairs and maintenance, to reduce the risk of flooding.

Item for work men’s wage for mending the Clowe at Haygreen Cross. 10d.

1688 Jo Bettony two days goyting on the Nab 1s 6d.

Payments to other township officers.

1591 Item to the Constable 7s 6d.

  1. That upon general reckoning made by the churchwardens and the town, that the town of Fishlake is owing to Thomas Parkin and Edward Waite churchwardens all things the sum of 16s.

Travel expenses.

1592 Item which spent going to Conisbrough 8d.

Payments to the poor.

1594 given the 28 April to a poor man 6d.

Again, on 3 May to a poor man 6d.

Bridge repairs.

In 1588 John Trimingham for board for Bind bridge (located on near the Far Bank over Taining Drain). 12s

1687 for a horse bridge making over the taining. £1. 1s. 8d.

Road repairs usually known as Causeways.

1713 paid Richard Johnson for taking up the causey against the parsning and making a new one 58 yards long at 2d a yard. 12s.

Access road repairs.

  1. Item for repairing pator balk (Balk an uncultured strip of land, often grass, giving access to cultivated strips necessary in an open field system) in the millfield 2s. 6d.

Refreshments. The practice of expenditure of food and drink became common after 1680 maybe to encourage more participation in township business.

1710 Ale and meat for the bylaw meeting.

Provision for flood risk incorporated into agreement.

The common piece letten to Thomas Actkin again his close for this year 1665 10s. and if it be flooded before he mow, he is to have at or about midsummer that his hay be spoiled paid then the town is to give or allow 5s back.

New House building in 1615.

Evidence for another form of income came from the commons raised by the bylaw court involving the granting of common rights to the building of new houses. In 1615 Thomas Wayte of Fosterhouses given right to build one new house 20s. Robert Bladworth 6s 8d for a similar right to build a new house.

Communication work.

1598 3d for sending word to the grassman of Sykehouse.

Bylaw men undertaking field inspections.

The bylaw men being met to gather the 23 May 1667. To view all those common water courses and finding the double dike is warped up very high…..

The supplying of boats for the river crossing. Fishlake being separated as it is by the river Don from other parts of its common lands necessitated the provision for a ferry crossing.

1582 for town boat 8d.

1587 William Trimingham 2 pieces of wood to make town boat nails 8d.

1590 George Gibson for finding ropes for the town boat.

1598 William Allen for finding of ropes for whole year for our town boat and for keeping her in them at the waterside.

A glossary of agrarian terms used in the Bylaw Book and elsewhere.

Agisting, Gist. A term used to mean pasturing animals for a fee on Fishlake commons by other townships.

Ancient. A legal term meaning beyond the memory of man i.e. no one old enough can remember.

Ancient Stiles or Gates. They are marked on the Enclosure Map and listed in the Grave Book, 33 Stiles are recorded in all. They appear to be physical structures (stile) which are markers or boundaries of land tenancy or ownership for manorial rent purposes.

Balk. Balk an uncultured strip of land, often grass, giving access to cultivated strips necessary in an open field system.

Causey or Causeway. A raised pathway, paved with stone or cobbles, a paved road, especially over marsh or water.

Clowe.  Sluice gate to manage water. Door hung at the end of a drain.

Drift. Corralling on the common to check for illegal grazing, offenders were fined.

Gate. 1)  Road, cattle walk or pasture. 2) The right or privileged of pasturage for cattle etc either free on common ground, or by arrangement on private ground.

Glean or gleaning.   To gather (for example grain) after a harvest.

Grave. A steward, a person in charge of the grave.

Graveship. Subdivision of a manorial territory for the purposes of collecting rents.

Grip or Goyted. To cut grips or small drains for draining (open surface drains). Goyted or goit meaning a water channel.

Howl or Howle. Tunnel or culvert under a road or bank.

Nab or Nabb. Hillock, projecting peak.

Sidlings. A strip of land often alongside a river.

Stile. See Ancient Stiles or gates.

Taining (drain) a device for catching fish. This strongly suggests that the Taining Drain was in fact constructed and used not just for drainage purposes but primarily as a fish catching structure. It originally ran as a loop connecting to the river near Fishlake village and to the river on the opposite side of the bank to Stainforth. Therefore, we have a dual-purpose land drain.

Bylaw B 6

The parchment back cover, or whats left, showing latin script.

The bylaw books provide a fascinating insight into agricultural life in Fishlake many years ago. The above is intended to convey a flavour of their content which well derives further study.


Rob Downing 25 April 2020.



An Inventory of Fishlake Roads and Lanes Past and Present.



An alphabetical list of Fishlake roads and lanes past and present. Not including minor footpaths or footways as listed and described in the Fishlake Enclosure Award 1825. Sources used include Survey Map of 1752, 1825 enclosure map and documents and subsequent OS maps from 1850 onward.

Over the century roads and lanes have had a particular fascination for local historians and archaeologists alike due to the importance they serve to local communities who used them. They can also be very ancient indeed helping to reconstruct the topographical history of a given landscape, giving clues as the way and how a settlement has developed. Fishlake is no different.

Road and lanes prove a vital communication and access mechanism to all parts of a local village and township. Footpaths provide an even deeper micro level of access provision. Many of these practical means of communication, Fishlake included, have become redundant, ploughed up and lost forever. This list is limited to roads and lanes which are named as opposed to footpath which are generally not.

Then there are the names given to these large and small highways which are often rich and descriptive in nature. Over time these names are seen to change for a variety of reasons. Ferry Lane has an obvious meaning but changed to Wood Lane when the Ferry was replaced by the bridge in 1887. The short lane from Pinfold Lane to the Church Street was various known are an Ancient Lane, Cheetham Road (in the 1820’s due to the location of George Cheetham’s premises) then Church Lane.

The list below records principle and significant highways, roads and lanes. I have avoided including the many dozens of occupational access roads to crofts and closes which are of minimal interest or disused. For those who are interested the Fishlake Enclosure Map and Award of 1825 record a great many of these, e.g. Spooner Road, Milnes’s Road, Perkins Road, Stones Road all refer to private roads leading to lands or property occupied by the person named in many cases.


Here are a couple of illustrations.


Spring 76 Wood Lane (Wykehouse Lane) E. SE640148

Wood Lane formally Known as Wykehouse Lane, running from New House Lane to Hushells Lane. Spring 1976.


Spring 1976 Peg Lane West from Thresholds Lane SE650152

Peg Lane, running West from Thesholds Lane, now disused. Spring 1976.


Ancient Lane now a road leading West out of the village renamed Fishlake Nab Road.

Ancient Lane now Church Lane.

Ancient Lane now Moor Lane from Enc. Map 1825.

Axle Moor Close Road. Now Axle Moor Road, condition: track, occupation lane running north from Westfield Road at SE639142.


Black Syke Lane. Condition Metalled. Situation North East and East from Geesness Lane to the junction of Wormley Hill Lane and Black Shaw Lane.

Bell Green. A short lane extending from Snatchells Lane. Metalled.

Bramwith Road. Metalled road runs from East/West linking Sour Lane and Pinfold Lane.

Briggs Lane formally Hornby Lane. Condition: track. Situated North then North East from top of Nab Lane to Trundle Lane at SE645135.

Burial Place Lane. Condition: Track. Situated West and North from Pinfold Lane to Sorrel Lane at SE652146. Refers to the site of a Quaker Burial Ground, now cleared.

Butler Lane, now disused, West from Pinfold Lane to East Field Road. SE 653135. Personal name.


Carrhead Lane. Condition: Track. Situation West from the junction of Geesness Lane and Black Syke Lane to top of Foster House Green Lane.

Cheetham Road see Enc Map of 1825, a short lane close to Church Farm what is now Church Lane (but was also known at a different time as Ancient Lane). Named after George Cheetham, a carpenter 1822 and publican in 1830’s of the Ring O Bells which so must have been close by?

Church Footway see Enc. Map 1825 extending from School to crossing Pinfold Lane to Lord Ings Road.

Church Lane formally Ancient Lane. Condition Metalled. Situation from Pinfold Lane to the Church Gate at SE657132.

Church Street. Condition Metalled. Situation East from the “cross” to the Church Gate at SE656132

Church Walk. Condition part metalled, part track. Situation South East from Pinfold Lane to the Church Yard at SE657134.

Court Lane. Named in the Bylaw Book in 1687 in relation to Court Lane Howle but far unidentified location. As this name may refer to the Bylaw Courts, which we know were held in Mill Field, possibly not far from Hushells Lane.

Cowick Road. Runs a North/South from Jubilee Bridge to Blackshaw Dike. Parallel with river Don.


Dirty Lane colloquial name Mucky Lane. Condition metalled. Situation North from Fishlake Nab to Trundle Lane at SE 654133.

Dunghill Lane colloquial for a lane running North from the junction of Mill Field Road with East Field Lane. Condition track. Occupation lane. Situation North West from the top of East Field Road at SE 645135.


East Field Road. Condition metalled. Situation North West from Trundle Lane by Manor Farm to Mill Field Road at SE 652146.


Far Bank Lane. Extending west along Far Bank. Condition track.

Fen Lane. Running North from Hushells Lane, serving Little Fen Field (Foster Houses). Occupation lane.

Fleet House Lane now incorporating Trundle Lane. Metalled.

Fishlake Church Road Enc. Map 1825 Extending from Lord Ings Road passed Vicarage towards the river.

Fishlake Road Enc. Map 1825. Now Fishlake Nab.

Fishlake Nab formally Ancient Lane. Condition metalled.

Fishlake Nab Road formally Stainforth and Fishlake Road. Extending from Stainforth Bridge to Church Street.

Ferry Lane see OS Map 1852 lane running south from Church Lane, formally known as Ancient Lane.

Ferry Lane formally a section of lane from Thorninghurst to Jubilee bridge now known as Wood Lane. See 1752 map. Condition track.

Foster House Green Lane. At Fosterhouses, running North from Hushells Lane to Carrhead Land. Known as Green Lane in 1891 OS. Map. Condition track.


Geeseness Lane, Fosterhouses, running north from Sorrel Lane.

Germaine Lane. Mentioned in Bylaw Book 1736. Location unknown.

Green Lane OS map 1891. Now Wood Lane, near Fosterhouses.

Green Lane. Now Foster House Green Lane.

Grove Road. Running North from Sour Lane, Haygreen. A modern (1960’s) metalled road.


Hayes Lane. Running North/East from Pinfold Lane. Hayes meaning a clearing in a wood.

Hornby Lane now Briggs Lane. Running North and East from Far Bank Land to Trundle Lane. Hornby and Briggs are both family names.

Hudson Croft Road. Now to section of Westfield Lane. Condition track. Hudson is a family name.

Hushells Lane. Running from Sorrell Lane at Fosterhouse Green to    Snatchells Lane.


Jarmin Lane. From 1825 enclosure map. A most North/Westerly stretch of what is now Trundle Lane.

Johnny Hall Lane formally Windmill Road. Running North from Mill Field Road. Condition track. Occupation lane.


Ley Ing Lane now Steward Ing Lane. See 1752 map.

Lord Ings Lane. Running East from Pinfold Lane to Church Walk. Condition track.

Low Ings Lane. Running South from Sour Lane towards the river.


Main Street running from Church Street to Fishlake Nab Road. Modern name.

Mill Field Road formally Fosterhouse and Bramwith Road. Condition metalled.

Moor House Gate Lane. Enc. map 1825. Now upper part of Trundle Land.

Mucky Lane, connecting Trundle Lane to see Dirty Lane.


Nab Close Road. Condition track.

Nab Lane. Running North from Stainforth and Fishlake Road, (Fishlake Nab), towards Far Bank.

New House Lane formally Rylah Lane. Runs North from Westfield Road to New House Farm.

North Lane, running East from Wood Lane at Haygreen. Now shortened. First mentioned in The Grave Book in 1736.

Norton Field Lane. 1850 OS map. Extending West from Smallhedge Farm, now split by New Junction Canal.


Peg Lane. Running West from Threshold Lane. Occupation lane. Now disused.

Pennyshaw Lane. Wrongly called Wood Lane OS map 1891. North towards Bell Green and Clay Bridge.

Pinfold Lane, running from Fosterhouses to The Cross in central village condition metalled.

Plumb Tree Hill Road. Extending from Fishlake Nab Road North towards Bramwith Woodhouse.

Poor Close Road. Poor Lands Road encl map 1825. Now lower end of Westfield Lane. Occupation road.


Rylah Lane now New House Lane.


Saunders Lane now Westfield Lane.

Smallhedge Lane. Approach to Smallhedge Farm.

Snelsholme Lane. Extending East from Sorrel Lane to Steward Ings Lane. This might be the same as Snellstill in a Will of William Trimingham of 1527 leaving monies to repair the highway at that place.

Snatchells Lane. Running North from Hushells Lane to Bell Green and Clay Bridge.

Sorrell Lane, Fosterhouses. Runs parallel East/West. Metalled.

Sour Lane. Earliest known reference is from the Bylaw Book in 1688. Along Haygreen to Jubilee Bridge. Metalled road.

South Lane. Unknown location. First recorded in The Grave Book in 1736.

Stainforth and Fishlake Road now Fishlake Nab Road. Metalled.

Stewards Ing Lane. Early mention in Bylaw Book 1716. Known as Ley Ing Lane see 1752 map. Runs parallel East/West from Snelsholme Lane to Cowick Road. 

Stony Lane. A lane running between Trundle Lane and Fishlake Nab Road.

Stony Lane. Stones Lane in 1825 Enc. Map. Runs West from Smallhedge Road now split by New Junction Canal. Occupation lane.

Strunns Lane. Running North from Carrhead Lane to Clay dike.

Sykehouse Road. Enclosure Map 1825, now part of Pinfold Lane at Haygreen. Metalled.


Taining Lane. Running West from Far Bank Road Condition track. Taining Drain close to Taining Lane first mentioned in the Bylaw Book in 1588.

Thacker Lane. Running North from Far Bank Lane to Nab Lane.

Thresholds Lane, Fosterhouses, running north from Sorrell Lane.

Thorninghirst Road. Enc. map 1825. Track. Runs West from Cowick Road to Thorninghirst.

Town Ing Road. Condition track. Running south from Sour Lane. Occupation road.

Town Street. Enc. Map 1825 a stretch of road by the Butter Cross.

Trundle Lane, running East/West from Westfield Road to Pinfold Lane. condition Metalled. Runs next to Trundle Dike first mentioned in the Bylaw Book in 1651.


Wenchurst Lane, Fosterhouses, running parallel but North of Sorrell Lane.

Wenchurst a family name.West Field House Road. OS map 1850. Running East from West Field House Lane.

West Field House Lane. Approach to West Field House Farm. Occupation lane.

West Field Road. Running parallel East/West. Metalled.

Westfield Lane formally lower part of Poor Croft Road and upper part of Hudson Close Road. Runs North from West Field Road.

Windmill Road. OS map 1850. Running North from Mill Field Road, now Johnny Hall Lane. Metalled. Occupation lane.

Wood Lane at Haygreen, running North/East. The Thorninghirst to Jubilee Bridge section formally known as Ferry Lane as early as 1752.

Wood Lane. Near Fosterhouse formally Wykehouse Lane. Then Green Lane OS map 1891. Running North /East from New House Farm to Hushells Land.

Woodhouse Gate Lane. Enc. map 1825. Now upper part of Trundle Lane. Metalled.

Wykehouse Lane. OS map 1850 now Wood Lane.


Rob Downing March 2020.



St Cuthbert’s Church, Fishlake a catalogue of incumbents.

         St Cuthbert’s Church, Fishlake a catalogue of incumbents.


St Cuthbert’s Church, Fishlake as painted by Roland Hibbard of Sheffield in 1830.

Fishlake Church 1830 Roland Hibbard of Sheffield


I thought it was time to prepare a revised and updated catalogue of incumbents at Fishlake and make this available online.

Existing lists are primarily taken from Joseph Hunter, South Yorkshire. Deanery of Doncaster 1828, which itself came, according to John Tomlinson in his Levels Hatfield Chace and Parts Adjacent, from the work of James Torre 1649-1699 a Yorkshire antiquarian and genealogist who specialised in the ecclesiastical antiquities of Yorkshire.

Other authorities used include the manuscript collections left by Roger Dobsworth, another Yorkshire Antiquarian, 1585-1654 and Sir William Dugdale 1705-1687. Subsequent lists have simply been copied from the original list including inaccuracies. These inaccuracies in particular applies to information regarding the Rectors, here revised information comes from The Rectory of Fishlake by F R Fairbanks, Yorkshire Archaeological Journal, vol 17, 1903 p413.

Most recently, 2020, a new research data base has been set up to record English clergy from 1540 to 1835 using official records,

Some additional information has been gathered from this important site.

With a view to completeness I have also added curates and other ministers who have appeared in the historical record.

Some definitions.

Rector…an incumbent of a parish where all tithes (a tenth of a parishioners produce /income) passed directly to the incumbent.

Vicar…an incumbent of a parish where tithes passed to a chapter or religious house or layperson who then appointed and paid a vicar.

Curate/perpetual curate. In practice an assistant to a vicar.


1247 Joceranus presented by Archbishop Walter Gray.

1252 Gerard de Grandison

1300 John de Warrenne. resigned in 1327.

1327 Geoffrey de Cotes, priest of Grimsby presented by the King.

1327 Peter Vaurelli presented by Pope John XXII.

1330 Peter Guinaberti presented by the Pope.

1345 Thomas de Riplington 14 November, presented by John Earl of Warenne as guardian of the Prior of Lewes, during the war with France.

1345-6 Thomas Bertram 26 January presented by John Earl Warenne.

1347-8 Thomas de Brembre presented by Prior and convent of Lewes. He resigned.

1351 Master Richard Mauleverer, Chaplain, presented 28 March by Sir Ralph de Neville, Lord of Raby. Buried at Fishlake.

1368 Sir William of York 25 September, presented by Lady Alice de Neville, of Brauncepath, died at Fishlake.

1378 John de Kirkeby 2 November, presented by Sir Richard Scrope. Resigned for the church of Grimsby.

1379-80 Thomas de Ulsby 2 November, presented by Sir Richard Scrope.


Appointed by the Patron. Prior and Covent of Durham:

Robert Gaynesburgh no date given. He resigned  for vicarage of Maltby.

1397 Peter Sherman 25 September.

John de Clayton no date given, died vicar. Will of 18 June 1406, directed he should be buried in the church.

1406 John de Foxton 12 July. He resigned for the vicarage of Laughton.

1420 Robert Kereby 3 April. Resigned.

1452 Ricardo Willeswik 23 September. Resigned.

1464 Thomas Fareburn 27 March, died at Fishlake.

1496 Christopher Tenand, died vicar.

1496 Richard Marshall, died vicar, see memorial tomb in the Chancel.

1505 John Redeman 10 February, died vicar, his will of 22 December 1531 directed his body to be buried in the high quire of the church.

1532 Richard Holme 27 April. Resigned.

1533 Henry Johnson 22 December. Still vicar in 1552, Surtees society inventory of church goods. Died a natural death in 1573.

Patron. Dean and Chapter of Durham, following the dissolution of the monasteries:

1573 Thomas Casson 19 September, died at Fishlake.

1589 Thomas Potter.

1589 Thomas Pettie/Petty.

1610 Thomas Pettie, April.

1633 Thomas Potter.

1641 Timothy Watmough

1654 Nathaniel Sympson. Burial 25 April 1654.

1655 Timothy Luddington. an unauthorised intruder during Cromwell’s time.

1662 James Mahun MA 7 May.

Thomas Bourne no date and died vicar.

1687 Maurice L’Isle MA 4 August. Resigned Augt 1707 for rectory of Kildale. Died 1719.

(1694 John Hall, curate).

1707 John L’Isle 27 August died at Fishlake in 1755. He was the son of Maurice.

(1707 Matthew Maslen, curate).

1755 John Gibson 17 September. Buried 18 Sept 1784 aged 55. Died due to stoppage in breast. (His father, John Gibson died and buried in October 1768 schoolmaster, Curate in Sykehouse in 1727, still was in 1743).

John Gibson 18 September 1784, 55 son of John, Clerk Vicar, died due to stoppage in breast.

1784 James Fothergill. Presented but not instituted for some reason.

(1815 John Sorsby, curate).

1784 John Metcalfe 5 October. Died at Fishlake 1822.

(1818 William Holbrey, curate). 1822 William Holbrey minister (acting vicar) trade directory and in 1829 Thorne Directory record him as vicar of Fishlake (William Holbrey buried at Fishlake 15 May 1839 age 45 reverend incumbent of Sykehouse abode Stainforth.)

1822 Joseph Arrowsmith BA, 2 August and read in the following Sunday from the Parish register but he appears not to have taken up his post for eleven years (an absent clergyman). Local newspapers in Stockton dated February 1833 have Joseph Arrowsmith, curate at Stockton upon Tees, being presented with a silver chased salver on his departure to the living at Fishlake. Therefore, William Holbrey effectively acted as vicar. Joseph Arrowsmith died at Fishlake 5 March 1846, buried 11 March, aged 59.

1846 Joseph Leeson 15 August, died at Fishlake. See biography in my wordpress.

1850 George Ornsby 17 August, died at Fishlake. Canon of York. See biography in my wordpress.

(Sykehouse Parish created in 1860).

1886 Hopkins Badnall, June, Archdeacon of Cape Town. See biography in my wordpress.

(David Methven, Curate in Charge, 1887-1889).

1889 Eliezer Flecker, May. See biography in my wordpress.

1911  Hamilton Henderson, February, died at Fishlake.

1929 William Noble Coghlin, December.

1959 Kenneth Arthur, April.

1963 J F Bulliman, October.

1966 Victor E Wells, September.

1974 Leslie Sheldrake February, died at Fishlake.

1980 Frank Bickerton, 23 May.

Appointed by Dutchy of Lanchaster, Bishop of Sheffield and Dean and Chapter of Durham, in turns.

1987 John M Osgerby, 2 May First Vicar of the Benefice of Fishlake, Sykehouse, Kirk Bramwith, Fenwick and Moss.

2003 Evelyn Sara Atherfold, July, previously Priest in Charge from 2000.

2019 Paul Mellars, appointed and left same year.

Rob Downing March 2020.



The phenomena of detached enclaves of local townships and parishes. The case of Fishlake and Sykehouse.

The phenomena of detached enclaves of local townships and parishes. The case of Fishlake and Sykehouse.


In this part of Yorkshire detached enclaves or parts of townships and parishes are quite common. They often consisted of pasture land situated in another parish or township, for example, on moors suitable for grazing. These enclaves are completely separate from the parent parish which can appear puzzling to modern observers. There are a variety of reasons that explain this phenomena which I will try to briefly examine, with examples.

Perhaps the principle explanation which illustrates the purpose and origins of separated lands is the need to share good quality grazing lands between neighbouring townships. The practice provided a solution to the problem of accessing usable lands in this marshland edge township during medieval timed and beyond. Thus pasture land tended to be allotted or shared to various local parishes and townships. Fishlake and Sykehouse, held land on Thorne Moor called Inclesmoor (Inclesmoor was first documented in 1200) from medieval times. Some of this land is illustrated and recorded on a map of the moor, dated 1406-1407 deposited in The National Archives. In addition, lands in Hadds, also at Thorne, are described in a deed of 1316 as being in the township (village) of Fishlake.
Much new lands were gained after extensive land reclamation works, this applied particularly to lands on Thorne and Hatfield Moors. As Dr David Hey states in his “The Making of South Yorkshire”, “Each township had detached portions upon the moors, well away from the parent settlement”. Clearly some allotments are Medieval in origin, whereas others date from later land reclamation, particularly that undertaken during the 17th century by Vermuyden and later by the Commissioners of sewers. Again, in 1630 after land reclamation various local townships including Fishlake, were allocated lands in Dikemarsh, Thorne.

Within the township of Fishlake we find on the 1854 6inch OS map these detached portions from neighbouring places includes
land on the West Nab in Fishlake (originally a common, West of the village) belonging to the parishes and townships of Hatfield, Stainforth, South Bramwith and Sykehouse. So lands belonging to Fishlake could be found five or six miles away in Hatfield Woodhouse. This practice worked both ways for example lands in Sykehouse at Pincheon Green belonging “to Thorne detached”. .

The Dean and Chapter of Durham, the rectors of Fishlake and Sykehouse, held a number of estates belonging to Fishlake but outside the parish boundaries. These are all classed as detached portions of the parish or township and are recorded as such on a map of 1883.


See 1883 Dean and Chapter of Durham maps below. Thanks to Dean and Chapter Library.


Map 2


Map 1














Clowns Farm at Hatfield Woodhouse, about 400 acres.
Bull Moors at Hatfield Woodhouse, about 150 acres.
Reedholme Farm at Thorne, about 130 acres.

About 470 acres at Thorne North Common sold about 1910 to create the present mining community of Moorends, Thorne. This land belonging to the Dean and Chapter of Durham and shown as part of Fishlake parish on 1st edition of 1 inch to a mile OS map 1840. Later the rents were shared between the livings of Fishlake and Sykehouse.

In another instance portions of land or even farms were occasionally bequeathed to monastic institution during medieval times for there financial maintenance. In Fishlake, for example, we have land belonging to the monastery at Nunappleton. In more recent times the enclosure map of 1825 records land belonging the vicar of Kirk Sandal etc. I have not traced the precise origin of these detached portions but in some cases they seem to have been bought for the augmentation of poor clergymen’s salaries

This all seems to show a long practice of mutual sharing of good lands and useful resources with neighbouring communities. I feel that this local problem of scatted pockets of good or suitable lands must to some extent be responsible for the appearance of detached portion in this locality.

Rob Downing February 2020.


The Township Boundary of Fishlake: The physical evidence


Townships can be regarded as areas of civil organisations unlike parishes which are ecclesiastical areas. Very often the areas they cover are identical, sometimes they are not. In the case of Fishlake and Sykehouse they were separate townships or civil areas but the ecclesiastical parish was the same until 1860 when Sykehouse achieved independent statues. In this case the dividing boundary was and still is the Clay Dike.

Township and parish boundaries may sometimes be of great antiquity. In some parts of England it has been suggested that some pre-date the Roman period, enclosing estates that were going concerns as early as the Bronze Age. This theory is based on the relationship of the boundary to features such as burial mounds, old trackways, Roman roads, field systems etc., which can sometimes be shown to be of later date. The boundary itself takes many forms, for example double hedges, linear earthworks, water courses, boundary stones and other natural or artificial features.

Many physical remains, both the boundaries and the structures in their vicinity are now being destroyed. This is serious, since they provide essential evidence for both local historians and archaeologists. Consequently in 1977 Leeds university, Extra-mural Department lead by Project Director Mrs HE Jean Le Patourel began the Yorkshire Boundary Project. This was founded to record township boundaries.

In 1979 I (the author) was approached to record the boundaries of both Fishlake and Sykehouse. Having perambulated these boundaries several times over previous years it made sense to get involved with this project. So it was that during April and May 1980 I undertook to record these boundaries. The result are recorded below.

Perambulation Day Sunday April 25. Thanks to Google Images.

Beating the Boounds

The survey brief was to record the boundary line as shown on the first edition OS map of c 1850’s.

Notes for the reader.

The account begins with the numbers on the survey map (not included). Then the nature of the boundary. Followed by a description of the boundary or nearby features and field names etc. Then the OS grid reference.


  1. Old river bed (dry, reedy) undefined. Remains of river Don channel. River now diverted South of here. The new cut, rebanking and flood plane all late 1940’s. Boundary still follows the old course. North of village and “landing Place” or Quay, this is remains of medieval inland port. Also ancient ferry crossing point.  65491309.
  2. As above. Staith marked here on 1752 survey map. 65391311.
  3. Two banks and flood plane, grassy. Boundary still undefined. Stop-up bank and floodplain bank both 10 feet high both late 1940s. Here also Taining drain, medieval open drain, now empties into modern drain. Also a barrier bank runs north 6 feet high to stop flooding from the west 17th century 652 61293.
  4. Another bank and grassy plain. Bank 7 feet high stretching from 3 to 5 is filled in old river channel. Boundary undefined but following centre of old river as 1854 first edition OS map. All landscaping bank drains flood arches late 1940s. 65251288.
  5. Centre of present river. Boundary runs west in centre of existing old river 6520 1276.
  6. South bank of the river. Deviation since 1854 but it run centre to river. 6453 1243.
  7. South bank of the river. Further deviation as above. Due to man-made alterations 20th century. 6416 1217.
  8. Floodplain. Embanking along to Stainforth 20th century.
  9. Centre of river. Boundary goes under Stainforth Bridge, stone 1740s formerly a stone Ford and ferry point. The north along west side of bridge. Here the boundary joins the township and parish boundary of Kirk Bramwith. Also the Osgodcross wapentake on the west. The lowest Strafford wapentake on East and South. Face of wall of bridge ashlar blocks of magnesium limestone. Along the west side of Stone bridge.  6408 1212.
  10. Stone wall same as bridge. Follows for several yards a wall extending from bridge. 6407 1214.
  11. Wire fence. This is modern and incorporating a field gate. 6407 1215.
  12. Hawthorn hedge. Follows the field edge. All fields in township here are in West Nab an area of common until the enclosure of 1812 to 1825 when all fields were laid out. 6407 1217.
  13. Metaled road. Boundary crosses Plumtree Hill Road. 6416 1281.
  14. Hawthorne hedge remnant. South of Boundary Taining Drain this diverted course is of enclosure date 1812 to 1825. 64181283.
  15. Pond. Could be old clay hole for brick making late 19th century. 643129.
  16. Grassy roadside verge. Alongside the verge his Green Dyke mediaeval feature first referred to in 1539 when it was the west Boundary of Hatfield Chase. It is the major feature on west the boundary of this township. It is a principal drain. 6419 1284.
  17. Grassy roadside verge. Further east from Boundary and Green Dyke is a barrier bank about 10 feet high. This bank is early 19th century to stop flooding from west. 6415 1290.
  18. Centre of Green Dyke, water. At this point Boundary runs in the centre of Dyke this Dyke meanders considerably showing that although medieval it was cut a long and early existing Boundary. 6356 1338.
  19. Centre of Green Dyke, water. Barrier bank almost at field level. Ground rising. 6344 1360.
  20. Metalled road. Green Dyke carried on the Westfield Road an east west route linking Kirk Bramwith with parish with Fishlake. 6633 1374. Artefact a late neolithic early Bronze Age flint end scraper. Other pieces of work flint in the vicinity. 633139.
  21. Centre of Green Dike, water. Adjoining Boundary of path originally an access road to Westfield house now truncated. Also a barrier bank runs parallel with it. 6319 1407.
  22. Canal, water. Here the Boundary cross is the New Junction canal open 1905. Much disturbance here from this date ie Bridge house embankment and flood gates ditchers etc. 6300 1434.
  23. Centre of Green Dyke, water. Boundary continues in Green Dyke. Also barrier bank at the height of 3 feet continues 62961441. From here onwards the bank is quite heavily covered by hawthorns. Some 100 yards from Boundary is a farmstead called Westfield House 18th-century buildings stand on an earlier site. 6292 1448.
  24. Clay Dike north side. Green Dike joins Clay Dike at Hell Wickett through a stone bridge and sluice. Clay Dike appears to be an ancient township Boundary between Fishlake and Sykehouse. After 1860 also parish boundary. Clay Dike is chiefly a major artificial drainage dike cut before 1208 when it was first mentioned. Hell Wickett, the gates of hell, may refer to an early crossing point along Clay Dike first mention 1539. Boundary continues along north side of Clay Dike in east direction. 6191522.
  25. As above. Here an old thick wood of mixed variety as on 1854 map. 6213 1523.
  26. As above. Above feature reduced to a single line of trees and bushes also includes footpath. This stretch known as Smallhedges Reins. Smallhedges, and narrow ditch with a hatch or grating across it. The above trees and bushes are situated on the low 2 feet high linear bank and extends to 27. 6236 1528.
  27. As above. Here a bridge and lane Smallhedges Lane joins boundary at this point it runs south from 27. Also at this point a linear feature, bank and side ditch with trees and bushes turns 90 degrees and runs South for 100 yds at a height of  3-4 ft with a lane adjoining. 63101570.
  28. Boundary undefined. The New Junction canal crosses a Boundary at Clay Dike is channeled underneath 1905. 6371 1589.
  29. Clay Dike Northside. Bridge takes metaled road over Clay Dike at Bell Green. 63892693.
  30. As above. At this point an additional dike runs parallel with Clay Dike for about half a mile. A supporting drain of mid-17th century date hence name Double Dyke now substantially dried up. 6436 1598.
  31. South side of Clay Dike, water. Boundary run south side of Clay Dike adjacent to Boundary is linear earth work partly a raised headland partly made up of spoil from dike some feet high. This large field to South shows extensive remains of ridge and furrow complete with headlands north and south. 6514 1583.
  32. Undefined in grass field with a return along Hawthorne hedge. Boundary forms is a strange peg shape seemingly taking in one selion (a medieval term for an open strip of land or small field). Follows an undefined course south to Carr Head Lane 4 feet from track of old fence and north 4 feet from roots of Hawthorn hedge adjacent to Strunns Lane back to Clay Dike. The area is on 1825 enclosure map recorded as 1 acre, one rood and eight to perches. 6539 1585.
  33. Southside of clay dike, water. A bridge takes Strunns Lane across Clay Dike Boundary continues in centre of dike 6540 1585.
  34. Clay Dike north side. Boundary now on north side of Dike as it makes a right angle turn. Note the central part of township most prone to drainage problems. 6580 1585.
  35. Centre of Clay Dike, water. Clay Dike carried on the Black Syke Lane. Boundary now in centre of Dike. 6632 1572.
  36. North side of Clay Dike. Clay Dike carried under low Ings Lane Boundary on north side of dike. Note, this stretch of Clay Dike otherwise known as Black Shaw Dike. 6664 1574.
  37. Centre of River Don, water. Here Clay Dike empties via a clough or sluice Blackshaw clough into River Don. Boundary follow centre of river. North Branch of River Don is an artificial cut either Norman or more likely Roman in date see Yorkshire Archaeological Journal vol. 47, p 15-22. There is a substantial river bank adjoining the Don averaging some 12 ft high along its length. 67241572.
  38. As above. Here an important crossing point into Fishlake. From medieval times a ferry point and from 1887 a bridge, called Jubilee Bridge. A Staith shown here on 1752 survey and a watering place marked here on enclosure map 1825. 67404180.
  39. River bank. Boundary shifts to bank of Don for a short distance. Then returns to centre of river. 6747 1463.
  40. Old Don course, water. Boundary follows old course of River Don replaced by new cut about 1947. Boundary crosses a modern bank and follow centre of old river still partly water filled. 674 2144.
  41. As above. Here a Staith marked on 1752 survey map. 674143.
  42. River bank. Boundary continues following old River course pre 1947 from point 42 to point 45. It takes an undefined course over a bank 15 feet high. Across the flood plain to South bank,at present River Don 15 feet high. 6696 1345.
  43. Centre of River Don, water. Boundary centre of River Don for short distance. 6676 1344.
  44. River Bank, then return to centre of river, water. Boundary turns to South bank of river before returning to centre of the river. The stone above this point is a modern water authority marker. 6655 1328.
  45. River bank. Boundary turn south and leaves old course of river Don which originally run in the north west direction into village. The undefined boundary now crosses marshy ground and roughly follows on embankment 15 feet high for about half a mile to 46. On 1854 map this Boundary follows a small water course where the bank now is. 6636 1321.
  46. Grassy banks and flats undefined. It takes a right angle turn running north crossing present river and bank. It continues across the flood plain over another bank some 15 feet high to point 1 and the start of this survey. 6559 1286.


Rob Downing February 2020.



The First Photographers who captured images of Fishlake.

The first photographers who captured pictorial images of Fishlake and its inhabitants.

By 1900 portrait photography was already well established while the recording village life was just becoming fashionable. Consequently, the first decade of the 20 th century saw a surge of interest in local scenes. In that regard Fishlake was no exception.

The development of local photographic images goes hand in hand with the popularly of postcards. Postcards were a cheap form of communication especially for those living in rural areas. In 1894 the Post Office gave authorisation for their use through the mail with an adhesive stamp. Then in 1902 the Post Office allowed both an address and message to be written on one side of the card. So the trend began.

There were a number of both professional and amateur local photographers operating during this time, however, there are only two we know of for certain. One was Edgar Leonard Scrivens of Doncaster the other John Alfred Brewins of Thorne. Here are some background notes about these individuals who pioneered local photography and left us with a wonderful legacy of fascinating images of past times.


John Alfred Brewins, 1881-1917.

Born in 1881 at St Austell, Cornwall.His father William Brewins was born in Rawcliffe, Yorkshire, his mother Lucy Ann was born in East Cowick, Yorkshire. John had an elder brother and sister. His father was a Wesleyan Methodist Minister.

By 1901 the family were living in South Parade, Thorne and John is recorded as an ironmonger’s apprentice. By 1911 John describes himself as a professional photographer, living at North Fields, Thorne.

He was responsible for the ‘Austell series’ picture post card series dating from at least 1908, named after his birth place. I am not sure when he began his photographic career but it must have been sometime between 1901 and 1908. It ended when he volunteered for military service in 1914. He joined the King’s Own Light Infantry 2nd Reserve Battalion as a private (33233).

He died from pneumonia due to his war wounds on March 7 1917. He is remembered with Honour at Cerisy-Gailly Military Cemetery, France and on Thorne War Memorial.

Brewins undertook a series picture of the Fishlake vicarage, choir and working party between 1910 and 1912. Usually the photographs have his name printed on the front but the ‘Austell series’ placed his details on the reverse side with the location name scratches on the front, eg internal view of the Fishlake church.


John Alfred Brewins

JABrewins with his camera.



Brewins cards

Brewin caption

Two examples of Brewins legends.


The photo and some of the above information is thanks to Thorne and Moorends Now and Then on Facebook.


Edgar Leonard Scrivens, 1883-1950.

A Doncaster photographer who was active between 1909 to mid 1930’s. Scrivens took many pictorial records of Fishlake. Born in 1883 he was a press photographer before starting his own business in 1909. He died in 1950.

All his pictures carried his initials ELS followed by a number donating a place, for example Fishlake was 28, then the number in the series. In the 1920’s and 1930’s he re-photographed areas recorded earlier in his career adding the letter G or V depending on the period.


Screvins in car

Scrivens and family in his car.

Thanks to the Yorkshire Post.

In addition there were other less known photographers who have left a photographic legacy. There is one with the initials JWT active during 1920’s, whose identity is yet unknown. Others who have not put there name or initials on there work remain anonymous.


A Short History of Flooding in Fishlake.

A short history of flooding in Fishlake.

The village of Fishlake lies adjacent to the lower reaches of the River Don in South Yorkshire. The placename Fishlake comes from the old English Fiscelac, Fixcale (1086 Doomsday Book), meaning Fish stream which of course refers to the River Don.

This location close to a major river provided advantageous benefits such as ample supply of water and food. In addition there were significant benefits to local economics, trade and transportation. Consequently the opportunity to develop a small inland port was not missed contributing to the overall economic growth of the township which is reflected most obviously in the size of the church building with its architectural richness. From the Doomsday Survey through various subsequent medieval records shows Fishlake to be a prosperous community as consequence of its riverside location.

Due to the low lying nature of the regional geography steps had already been taken in past centuries to manage surface water logging through various techniques including diking, embanking and agricultural practices.

It is therefore assumed that existing land drainage arrangements known today as Taining drain, Clay Dike, Green Dike, Boating Dike (now filled in), Trundle and Sour Drains were adequate to manage local land drainage requirements. Supported by the existing ridge and furrow field  drainage techniques.  Equally river banking precautions provided additional satisfactory protection from  the possibility of flooding.

Local township management through the Bylaw Court saw that bankmen were appointed yearly, at least from 1591, their function was to ensure the ancient banks were secure and properly maintained. There is a late 17th century petition stating that the Fishlake earthen river embankments before the 1630’s were only 3ft high and their cost of maintenance yearly was £8.

Before the 17 th century there is no obvious evidence that the village itself suffered from significant flooding. However, human intervention during the early 17th century created radical changes to the local landscape due to substantial drainage work undertaken to the south and East of Fishlake and the river Don. This came about when Charles 1 st commissioned a Dutch engineer, Cornelius Vermuyden, to undertake reclamation work to large proportions of waterlogged land by draining Hatfield Chase, a large area which including Thorne and the Isle of Axholme. The benefits come from the acquisition of drained agricultural land that could then be distributed for profit, a third to the Crown, a third to Vermyden and a third to the inhabits. In some areas the project can be viewed and a success story.  However there was an unforeseen negative side effect, the drainage project caused a great increase in the chances of flooding on the northern bank of the Don. This was due to the raising of Ashfield bank on the South side and by cutting off the Southern arm of the two courses of the river which encircled Ashfields. This forced the river to flow into the Northern arm against the Fishlake bank. More seriously, by cutting off the Don completely from its ancient route through the Levels at Thorne and forcing its total flow into the medieval Turnbridge Dike (running north to Goole) it produced a situation with which neither the Dike nor the ancient low banks at Fishlake could cope.

Below. This is the man Sir Cornelius Vermyden who Fishlake folk love to hate.

Cornelius Vermyden resized

Unfortunately for those living on the north side of the Don mistakes made during the planning and undertaking phases resulted in catastrophic flooding in Fishlake. So much so that the drainage and subsequent flooding produced a five year gap in the Bye-law court book records, between 1625 and 1630 inclusive.

Consequently this resulted in long legal struggles by the inhabitants of Fishlake (and other affected areas) which forced the drainage engineers to open a channel to the Ouse (know as the Dutch River) and to raise the Fishlake bank to an adequate height. The ongoing struggle continued through the 17 th century with the Participants (the financiers of the drainage and their successors). Even then Fishlake inhabitants had to pay annually to maintain the banks.

Over the following decades and centuries numerous accounts exist of flooding events in the village. The following are some notable examples:

From the Diary of Abraham De La Pryme as reproduced in Tomlinson’s Levels of Hatfield Chace and Part Adjacent.  “1697 December 17, 18, 19, 20. On the 17th of this month wee had a very great snow which was on the level ground about 2 foot and a half thick after a pretty hard frost which as it thawed froze again for several days. The 20th it thow’d  exceeding fast upon which there  came so a great flood down that the like was never known. About forty one years ago there was then the greatest flood that was ever remembered, but that was much less than this for this came roreing all of a sudden about 11 o’clock at night unto  Bramwith, Fishlake, Thorn and other the towns upon which the people run all the bells backward (as they commonly do in case of a great fire) but tho’ that this frighted all and called all the banks and bid them all look about them yet nevertheless the loss is vastly great. The people of Sikehouse  and Fishlake though they had banks to save them yet it tops all drounded the people’s beasts in their folds and houses destroyed sheep and several men lost their lives their houses in sikehouse and many in Fishlake being drownded up to the very eaves so that they reckon no less than £3000 damages to be done by the same in the parish of Fishlake.It was indeed all all over a very sad thing to hear the oxen blowing and the sheep bleating on the people crying out for help round about as they did all Bramwith, Sikehouse, Stanford and Fishlake over (as undoubtedly they did in other places) yet no one could get to save or help them being about midd night and so many poor people are forced to remain for several days together some upon the top of their houses others in the highest rooms without meat or fire until they were almost starv’d”.


The following accounts may well have effected Fishlake too. Tomlinson records several flooding memorandums taken from Thorne Parish register. 1681 January 15 th “a great flood, with high winds”. Also in 1682 April 27 th. 1696 13 th December. “that great flood came on very suddenly and the highest that has been known”. 1701 January 18 th ” that a great flood then came down”. 1706 18 and 19 th July. “There was a great flood”.

1795 12 February a great flood was recorded in the Fishlake township account book as follows,

“Memorandum that this Book as well as most of the Writings belonging this town was very much Damaged by the great Flood of water which happened on the Eleventh day of February One Thousand seven hundred and Ninety five The said Book and Writings being then in the Town Chest in the School House, which said Chest was over flowed with water several inches above the lid or cover of the same, and also was two foot deep in several Houses, and in some Houses several inches above two foot, and the said Flood perished and drowned several Horses, beasts, sheep, pigs & in the parish, as well as greatly damaging Corn, hay, Clover & in the Barn and Stacks too tedious to mention here in particulars… This memorandum drawn into the book by desire of several Neighbours, the 20 th of the said instant February 1795. By me Richard France.” ( now in the Doncaster Archives).

1846 a major flooding.

1872 a major flooding.

November 1880 a great flood. (an account taken from Tomlinsons, Hatfield Chace and Parts Adjacent). In early October continued rain caused considerable inundations from dykes and  small streams. In Fishlake many thousand acres of land were submerged to the depth of one to three feet including the village, farmsteads and stacks. Worse than the great flood of 1872. On Sunday 31st October church service suspended due to access. Boats and rafts were used to convey families to safety. Cattle moved to high ground but there was a loss to a variety of arable crops.

1886 Tom Smith, Chair of the Parish Council at the time, recorded in a later newspaper article that flood water in the village was 9 feet deep in some places as bad as it was in 1846. In 1886 cattle had to be moved to safe ground and some people had to abandon their homes for a time.

1923 2 March a number of photographs (perhaps the earliest) recording extensive flooding in the village.

Hay Green Corner  2 nd March 1923.

1923 Flood at Hay Green, Fishlake

Below Nab Road Flooded 2nd March 1923. See the make- shift bridge erected across the road.

Main Street in flood with temp bridge

Below Haygreen Junction afloat in a bath 1923.

Hay Green Flood 1923

Below the flooding Wednesday January 11 th 1928 as recorded in a regional newspaper

Fishlake flood newspaper pic

1928 Newspaper reports  flooding on three sides of the village.

1932 May 20 -23 rd also a photographic record of flooding in the village. On that occasion Fishlake was flooded for 16 days in some parts up to 9 feet deep according to newspaper reports. During a period of 30 hours of constant rain.

Below David Duckitt left and Percy Smith, postman right larking about in the flood of 1932.

Fishlake flood May1932 L David Duckitt R Percy Smith Postman

Fishlake flood May 1932 L David Duckitt R Percy Smith Postman


Below. Some residents of Fishlake took to stilts! Date and person is unknown.

Man on Stilts at Twitchel

Over the years many new drainage schemes were proposed but not undertaken.

1930 saw the Land Drainage Act when the responsibility for the whole system of tidal and flood defenses was placed with two Boards, the River Ouse (Yorkshire) Catchment Board and the River Trent catchment Board. In 1933 major improvements were planned to the river Don between Doncaster and Goole including widening, deepening, raising flood banks, work began before the war and finished in 1953 at the cost of £1,500,00.

1942 River Don diverted to reduce the risk of flooding in the village.

River Don Diversion 1942

1947 Snow melt from the great freeze followed by flooding.

The Nab under water in 1947.

1947 Nab Flood resized.

No major flooding after 1947 which was the last time Fishlake residents had to leave there village.

Before the use of sandbags houses at risk of flooding constructed ‘latt’ on gates and doors to prevent flood water entering gardens and properties. These ‘latts’ could still be seen at several houses on the bank in 1970’s.

2000 November. A threatened flood. Fishlake saw sandbags and evacuation. Thankfully the flood defenses held and avoided devastation seen elsewhere.

2007 River Don very high.

2012 7 th July River levels at 6.47. maximum by new recording devices.

2015/16. River Don very high.

Once again in 2019 Fishlake village was inundated with water following a long and persistent rain fall. This situation was made worse by significant flood defenses which had been put in place higher up the river at Sheffield following the devastating flooding 12 years earlier (2007). It is now confirmed that there had been 77.8 mm ( 3.1 inches) of rain during a twenty-four hour period over 7 and 8 November.

There are full accounts of these events online and in newspapers.

November 2019.

2019 flooding

“Everyone has a different opinion on why our village flooded. Was it a lack of dredging for many years, the fact that Sheffield had increased its flood protection, the fact that Fishlake’s river banks are lower than those opposite, the disappearance of many drains and ditches or simply the fact that we had two months’ worth of rain in a day and the resultant water combined with a high tide pushed the water towards the village?” Thanks to Stephen Cook Fishlake Findings 29 th November 2019.

Ironically this is a similar situation to what happened almost 400 years earlier when drainage improvements in the adjacent parishes (as described above) caused devastation to Fishlake village and its inhabitants.



Tomlinson John Level of Hatfield Chace and Parts Adjacent. 1882.

Byford D. Open Field Farming in Fishlake and Hatfield: in Aspects of Doncaster. 1997.

Cook S Fishlake Findings.

Fishlake The Story of a South Yorkshire Village 2000.




Maurice L’Isle and John L’Isle, father and son both served as vicars of Fishlake.

Maurice L’Isle  vicar 1687-1707.

John L’Isle vicar 1707-1755.

Maurice L’Isle born in Yorkshire August 23 1653. Admitted to Peterhouse, Cambridge June  8 1671 aged 17. Matriculation 1671, scholar 1672, BA 1674-5, MA 1678. Curate of Great Stainton, Durham. Rector of Kildale in Cleveland. Vicar of Fishlake 1687-1707. Married at Stainton January 9 1680-1 Elizabeth Tonstall. Died April 6 1719. Buried at Kildale, memorial inscription there.

In brief Maurice is the father of:

John born Stainton 1683.

Denis born Fishlake 1688, Baptised 22 rd April.

Anna born Fishlake 1690.

Elizabeth born Fishlake 1692.

Henry born Fishlake 1695.

More details below.

John L’Isle Admitted sizar (an undergraduate receiving financial help from the College) aged 17 to Peterhouse, Cambridge April 15 1700, son of Maurice of great a Stainton, Durham. School Gisburgh, Yorkshire. matriculated 1701, BA 1703-4. Ordained deacon York June 1704, priest June 1707. Vicar of Fishlake, Yorks, 1707-55. Died May 30 1755, aged 73. See memorial inscription in Fishlake Church further down.

Denis L’Isle Admitted sizar at St John’s, Cambridge, January 24th 1705-6. Son of Maurice of Guisborough, Yorks. Born at Fishlake. School, low their (Mr Lodge). Matriculated 1705-6. Migrated to Trinity Hall, 1712. LLB 1712. Licensed by the Bishop of Ely to teach at Willingham, Cambridge, 1707. Admitted to Gray’s Inn, February 22 1716-7. Auditor and registrar of Trinity Colledge, 1717. Died June 2 1727. Buried in the anti Chapel, Trinity College. See memorial slab below:

Grave of Denis L'Isle LLB


Additional information from his memorial. He was proctor in the courts of the Chancellor of the University and the Bishop of Ely. A pupil of Edward Rud.

A translation from the Latin on his memorial is as follows:

‘Here lies Denis L’Isle. LL.B., who was Proctor to the courts of the bishop of Ely and the Vice-Chancellor of Cambridge. He WA famous for his force of character and endurance of toil. He was very learned in civil and common law, and was second to none in integrity and friendship. Protractor of the weak and an ornament to his friends and family, he died on 2 nd June 1727 at the age of thirty-nine’.

Henry L’Isle. Admitted sizar aged 17 at Trinity Colledge, Cambridge September 20 1722 son of Maurice of Kildale, Yorkshire clerk.School, Kirkleatham, Yorkshire (Mr Oakley).Matriculated 1713-4, BA 1716-7. Ordained deacon York September 1717.

John L’Isle vicar of Fishlake Born 1683

Married Abigail Tod on 23 August 1721. They had a daughter Hannah baptised 5 April 1727. Abigail died 6 September 1729, in the registers she is titled Lady. John remarried on 17 April 1735 to Mary Rhodes, she died in 1746 and buried at Fishlake 20 th December 1746. In the registers she is titled Mrs. see his memorial in Fishlake Church.

Memorial inscriptions to this family inside Fishlake Church.

On the wall Abigail   ‘Hic jacet Abigalia / (cum Puerto abortive) / us or charissima Johannis LeIsle vicarii de Fishlake / bona for a suavi indole / acetate integra / et integri / tate / probata / Fuit conjure casta / pia ac omnia bona / opera satis apta et sufficienter idonea / obiit puerpera et / febribus occupata / quinto die Septembris annoque Dom 1729 / in Spe quiescit resurget’

Mary his wife memorial on the floor. ‘Here lyeth / the body of Mary the / beloved wife of John LeISLE vicar of Fishlake / who died December / 7th 1746 aged 61 years / Dayly actions pious wife / And just / To the last day will blossoms / In the dust’.

John L’Isle on the floor ‘Hic deponitur / Hutus ecclesial 48 annoys / pastor fidus / verse pietatis eximium exemplum / necnon ordini sacrae ornamentum / obiit 3 kal Jun Anno Xti 1755 acetate 73’.

Rob Downing March 2019